Kaval flute has a scale from d1 to c4 and in this respect can extract all the sounds chromatically except d#1, c2, c#2, d#2.
Different pitches are obtained by special combinations covering the finger holes, and by varying the power of the air blown at an angle.
Kaval sound timbre
Kaval is an instrument with rich technical capabilities as well as music.
In the low register ( kaba ) is saturated, rich in harmonics sound.
The average registry is lyrical and poetic. The high register is quite loud and shrill.
Extensive technical possibilities of the instrument can be seen in fast dance Balkan (Bulgarian) melodies,
as well as in slow folk songs (songs without rithm).
Slow melodies performed on a piece, are richly ornamented and have a gentle melody line.
Basic ornaments are:
mordent uper i lower;
short and log forshlag.
During the kaval playing often used vibrato and glisanda.
Kaval is used by all the holidays and folk rituals starting from weddings and funeral ending.
Kaval is used in such genres as folk music, jazz, ethno, pop and even classical music.